Bird Song Files: Selected Species        [spec]

Here is a selection of song files from a variety of bird species, favoring vireos.
And a variety of links to other animal-sound related sites.
This page is constantly under Construction: I will be adding species/songs to it soon.

White-eyed Vireo (V. griseus)
[white-eyed vireo]

The white-eyed vireo Vireo griseus is a common scrub-dwelling vireo, widely scattered across the eastern United States and northeastern Mexico in its breeding season. Each male has a discrete-song repertoire of about a dozen song types, delivered in an eventual-variety manner. There is extensive song sharing among White-eyed Vireos, and any two males usually share about half of their song repertoires.

These selections are of several song types from white-eyed vireos and illustrate both the complexity within and the diversity between song types. These songs were all recorded in Washington County, Virginia.

White-eyed Vireos frequently incorporate notes from other species into their primary song. For example, a Wood Thrush call ("whit-whit-whit") can be heard at the beginning of song #2, and a Great-crested Flycatcher ("wooit"") at the beginnig of song #5. Also, song #4 is depicted in the sonogram at the top of the page.

1. White-eyed Vireo Song 1
2. White-eyed Vireo Song 2
3. White-eyed Vireo Song 3
4. White-eyed Vireo Song 4
5. White-eyed Vireo Song 5

Bell's Vireo is mostly known in the southwestern United States, with a less-dense population scattered across the midwestern states, as far east as Illinois and Indiana. In the Southwest they occupy the dense vegetation common along riparian corridors. As a result, in areas where the riparian vegetation has been reduced, Bell's Vireos have become less common. The subspecies found in California, the Least Bell's Vireo (V. b. pusillus), is endangered.

Songs of Bell's vireos are usually delivered in repetitions of song pairs, although not always; sometimes a single song is repeated, or sometimes triplets or even quadruplets are rotated. Each song is a series of wide-band notes, giving the song a quality much like a warbling vireo. Interestingly, song sharing among individuals is very rare; each song may be unique to the individual.

Songs were recorded near Tucson, Arizona.

1. Bell's Vireo Individual Song 1
2. Bell's Vireo Individual Song 2
3. Bell's Vireo Song 3: Natural Pair
4. Bell's Vireo Song 4: Natural Pair
5. Bell's Vireo Song 5: Natural Triplet
Bell's Vireo
(V. bellii)
Bell's Vireo
Photo: Jim Greaves

Jamaican White-eyed Vireo (V. modestus)
[Jamaican white-eyed vireo]

The Jamaican White-eyed Vireo (Vireo modestus) is one of two species of vireo found only on the island of Jamaica; the other is the Blue Mountain Vireo, V. osburni. The Jamaican White-eyed Vireo is found in scrubby growth over most of the island, but more commonly in higher elevations. In Jamaica, V. modestus is known as "The White-eyed Vireo" with V. griseus being "The American White-eyed Vireo".

Jamaican White-eyed Vireo songs usually consist of multiple repetitions of an individual note or a note complex. The repetition rate varies from rapid and trill-like, to slow 3 or 4 note repetitions. Individual males have a slightly larger repertoire than the previous two species; near 20 songs per male. Song sharing is extensive within a population, and males often match song types. In mountainous regions, often the same song type can be heard resounding from several territories.

Songs 1-4 were all recorded from the same individual, selected to show the variety within a repertoire. Song 5 is from another male. Recordings were made near the town of Section, in the Blue Mountains. This area is now set aside as a National Park.

1. Jamaican White-eyed Vireo Song 1
2. Jamaican White-eyed Vireo Song 2
3. Jamaican White-eyed Vireo Song 3
4. Jamaican White-eyed Vireo Song 4
5. Jamaican White-eyed Vireo Song 5

Rambling Song in Vireos
[ramble spec]

Many species of vireos produce an alternate form of singing, in which low-intensity syllables are strung together in a rapid squeaky manner. This has been called many things by different observers, including rambling song, run-on song, bubble-song, and squeaky song, all of which give an indication of its structure.
     The vireos produce this type of singing in a wide variety of contexts: during courtship, territorial skirmishes, presence of predators, newly-arrived males, young (fall) birds, and even during migration. This diversity of context suggests no particular function-- perhaps high excitement?
    The sequences presented here are relatively long, but worth the wait!

1. Rambling song in White-eyed Vireo
    11.6 sec; several other species in background, including prominent titmouse.
2. Primary and rambling song in Plumbeous Vireo
    14.4 sec; starts with typical song, then switches to ramble.
     Depicted in sonogram above.
3. Western Warbling Vireo Rambling Song
    9.6 sec; recorded from a migrant near Tucson

The Mexican Jay Aphelocoma ultramarina is the second least common jay in the United States, both in numbers of individuals and in range. It can be found along the Rio Grande in Brewester County, Texas, and in the middle-elevation Juniper woodlands of se Arizona and sw New Mexico. In Mexico it is widely distributed through the mountainous highlands. Mexican Jays live in complex social groups of from 5-25 individuals. Their main vocalization, the loud call is used for a variety of purposes and is usually given in a series of 3-8 calls. Presented here are loud calls from four different individuals. The second is a two-part loud call.

Songs were recorded near Portal, Arizona.

1. Mexican Jay Individual Call 1
2. Mexican Jay Individual Call 2
3. Mexican Jay 3-Call Sequence
         edited in a row to show individual variation.

Mexican Jay
(Aphelocoma ultramarina)
Mexican Jay
Photo: Jack Murray

Sound Analysis Software

Sound-related Links
Animal-sound related links:
Links to sound-related software are on a dedicated page.

Bioacoustics Programs and Organizations

Bioacoustics Journal:    Home Page

Borror Laboratory    of Bioacoustics.

World Forum for Acoustic Ecology:    Group devoted to "sound" studies of all disciplines.

Bioacoustics Research Program :   at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology

Texas A&M:    Center for Bioacoustics

FitzPatrick:    Bird Communication Library

Professional Sound Archives and Collections

The Borror Laboratory of Bioacoustics:    extensive sound archives.

The Cornell Macaulay Library of Natural Sounds

The British Library:    National Sound Archive

Florida Museum of Natural History:    Bioacoustic Archives

Animal-sound Sites

Naturesongs:    Extensive pages devoted to sound recording and natural sounds. Good recordings organized by taxonomy. Recommended!

Guide to Animal Sounds on the Net:    Extensive Listings

Tony Phillips:    Academic Home Page

Greg Kunkel:    Personal page devoted to bird songs.

Brazilian Bird Songs:    Wav and AU files

Sound Analysis Software


Link Suggestions? Send an E-mail